• ## ALDF – Average Logarithmic Distance Frequency [ statistics ]

a modified frequency that prevents the result to be excessively influenced by one part of the corpus (e.g. one or more documents) which contains a high concentration of the token. If the token is evenly distributed across the corpus, ALDF and absolute frequency will be similar or identical. In comparison with ARF (Average Reduced Frequency), ALDF is calculated from the average distances between the tokens, not the frequency of the token. see also ALDF definition
• ## ARF – Average Reduced Frequency [ statistics ]

a modified frequency which prevents the result to be excessively influenced by one part of the corpus (e.g. one or more documents) which contains a high concentration of the token. If the token is evenly distributed across the corpus, ARF and absolute frequency will be similar or identical. In comparison with ALDF (Average Logarithmic Distance Frequency), ARF is calculated from the frequency of the token, not distances between the tokens. see also ARF definition
• ## document frequency (docf) [ statistics ]

The document frequency is the number of documents in which the word or phrase appears. If the corpus has 100 documents and 2 documents contain the word city: document number 7 contains 17 instances of city, document number 31 contains 6 instances of city, the document frequency of city is 2, because 2 documents contain the word. It is not important how many documents the corpus contains or how many times the word appears in total. The document frequency can be better suited for comparison in situations when the corpus contains a small number of documents with an extremely high frequency of particular words. Relative document frequency (also relative DOCF) is the percentage of documents that contain the word or item. Similar to the relative frequency, it is used to compare document frequencies between corpora of different sizes. see also frequency frequency per million ARF Statistics used in Sketch Engine
• ## frequency [ statistics ]

Frequency (also absolute frequency) refers to the number of occurrences or hits. If a word, phrase, tag etc. has a frequency of 10, it means it was found 10 times or it exists 10 times. It is an absolute figure. It is not calculated using a specific formula. compare frequency per million see also ARF document frequency Statistics used in Sketch Engine
• ## likelihood [ statistics ]

a function of parameters of a statistical model, it plays a key role in statistical inference and is the basis for the log-likelihood function. see Statistics in Sketch Engine
• ## log-likelihood [ statistics ]

one of the functions used in computed statistics of Sketch Engine. It is the association measures based on the likelihood function, using in tests for significance (see the log-likelihood calculator and more details)
• ## logDice [ statistics ]

a statistic measure for identifying co-occurrence (=two items appearing together). Sketch Engine uses it to identify collocations. It expresses the typicality (or strength) of the collocation. It is used in the word sketch feature and also when computing collocations from a concordance. It is only based on the frequency of the node and the collocate and the frequency of the whole collocation (co-occurrence of the node and collocate). logDice is not affected by the size of the corpus and, therefore, can be used to compare scores between different corpora. logDice is the preferred statistic measure for large corpora. The other traditional measures take corpus size into account and the enormous size of the current multi-billion-word corpora skews the score so much as to make them impractical. In bilingual terminology extraction LogDice is also used in bilingual term extraction to identify the most probable translation. In detail A detailed explanation for non-statisticians and non-mathematicians is published in this blog post: Most frequent or most typical collocations?     see also logDice in Statistics used in Sketch Engine A Lexicographer-Friendly Association Score (paper) T-score MI score
• ## MI Score [ statistics ]

The Mutual Information score expresses the extent to which words co-occur compared to the number of times they appear separately. MI Score is affected strongly by the frequency, low-frequency words tend to reach a high MI score which may be misleading. This is why Sketch Engine allows setting a frequency limit so that low-frequency words can be excluded from the calculation. When comparing the T-score and MI score, in most cases T-score is more useful than MI score. However, both of these scores are affected by the corpus size. This makes them less useful when working with modern mutli-billion-word corpora. This is why Sketch Engine prefers the LogDice score in most situations, especially in word sketches. see Concordance - Collocations see Statistics in Sketch Engine compare T-score logDice
• ## minimum sensitivity [ statistics ]

a statistics measure similar to logDice which is the minimum of the two following numbers:

• the number of co-occurrences divided by the frequency of the collocate
• the number of co-occurrences divided by the frequency of the node word

The minimum sensitivity number grows with a high number of co-occurrences and falls with a high number of occurrences of the individual words (node word or collocate).

• ## overall score [ statistics ]

score of the relation based on logDice in word sketches. The score is displayed in the header of each column of the relation.
• ## relative frequency, frequency per million [ statistics ]

(also called freq/mill in the interface) a number of occurrences (hits) of an item per million tokens, also called i.p.m. (instances per million). It is used to compare frequencies between corpora of different sizes. number of hits : corpus size in millions of tokens = frequency per million The frequency per million is always related to the whole corpus or subcorpus, not to a text type. Restricting the query to one or more text types will affect the number of hits but the frequency per million will still be calculated using the number of tokens in the whole (sub)corpus. To relate the frequency per million to one or more text types, create a subcorpus from the text type(s) and restrict the query to this subcorpus.
###### Example
Looking up the frequency of the word helps in the British National Corpus (112,181,015 tokens), first in the spoken Text type and then in the spoken subcorpus will produce these results. SUBCORPUS SELECTED TEXT TYPE SELECTED HITS none none spoken 11,787,138 tokens none spoken none 3,116 302 302 27.75 in relation to the number of tokens in the whole corpus 2.69 in relation to the number of tokens in the whole corpus 25.62 in relation to the number of tokens in the subcorpus helps appears 27.75 times per million tokens in BNC ‘spoken’ helps appears 2.69 times per million tokens in BNC helps appears 25.62 times per million tokens in the spoken part of BNC