A parallel corpus consists of the same text translated into one or more languages. The texts are aligned (matching segments, usual sentences, are linked). The corpus allows searches in one or both languages to look up or compare translations.
part of speech, some typical examples of parts of speech are: noun, adjective, verb, adverb etc.
POS (part of speech) tagging is a process of annotating each token with a tag carrying information about the part of speech and often also morphological and grammatical information such as number, gender, case, tense etc. The automatic tagging tool is called a tagger or POS tagger.
A positional attribute is information added to each token in a corpus, e.g. its lemma (basic form of a word) or part of speech. Attributes differ between corpora and even between corpora in the same language. For example, the attributes of the plural of the English word dog might look like this.