A tagset is a list of part-of-speech tags (POS tags for short), i.e. labels used to indicate the part of speech and sometimes also other grammatical categories (case, tense etc.) of each token in a text corpus.

SPOOK morphosyntactic specifications

The English tagset of SPOOK morphosyntactic specifications is available in the English-Montenegrin parallel corpus. It was developed by Tomaž Erjavec Dept. of Knowledge Technologies Jožef Stefan Institute.

English tagsets

used in Sketch Engine

The following table shows SPOOK morphosyntactic specifications for English.

An Example of a tag in the CQL concordance search box: [tag="Nc-s"] finds all nouns common singular, e.g. time, case, way (note: please make sure that you use straight double quotation marks)

Basic notation

Description PoS tag
Abbreviation Y.*
Adjective A.*
Adverb R.*
Article T.*
Conjunction C.*
Interjection I.*
Noun N.*
Noun common Nc.*
Noun proper Np.*
Numeral M.*
Particle Q.*
Preposition S.*
Pronoun P.*
Residual X.*
Verb V.*

Detailed notation

English Noun

Specification for English Noun
P Attribute (en) Value (en) Code (en) Attribute (sl) Value (sl) Code (sl)
0 CATEGORY Noun N besedna_vrsta samostalnik S
1 Type common c vrsta občno_ime o
proper p lastno_ime l
3 Number singular s število ednina e
plural p množina m
3.2.3.1. Morphosyntactic descriptions
MSD table
MSD (sl) Features (sl) MSD (en) Features (en) TreeTagger Description Examples of use
So-e samostalnik vrsta=občno_ime število=ednina Nc-s Noun Type=common Number=singular NN Noun common singular time, man, way, head, something, hand, room, door, nothing
So-m samostalnik vrsta=občno_ime število=množina Nc-p Noun Type=common Number=plural NNS Noun common plural eyes/eye, people, things/thing, ‘i, years/year, men/man, feet/foot, hands/hand, words/word
Sl-e samostalnik vrsta=lastno_ime število=ednina Np-s Noun Type=proper Number=singular NP Proper noun singular Harry, Langdon, Ron, Dumbledore, Sophie, Hermione, Samad, Archie, Stefan
Sl-m samostalnik vrsta=lastno_ime število=množina Np-p Noun Type=proper Number=plural NPS Proper noun plural Dursleys/Dursley, Harrys/Harry, Fords, Brothers, States, Jews, Muslims, Catholics, Americans

3.2.4. English Verb

Specification for English Verb
P Attribute (en) Value (en) Code (en) Attribute (sl) Value (sl) Code (sl)
0 CATEGORY Verb V besedna_vrsta glagol G
1 Type modal o vrsta naklonski n
2 VForm base b oblika osnovna_oblika o
indicative i povednik i
participle p deležnik d
3 Tense present p čas sedanjik s
past s preteklik r
4 Person third 3 oseba tretja t
5 Number singular s število ednina e
3.2.4.1. Morphosyntactic descriptions
MSD table
MSD (sl) Features (sl) MSD (en) Features (en) TreeTagger Description Examples of use
G-o glagol oblika=osnovna_oblika V-b Verb VForm=base VB Verb, base form be, have, see, do, go, get, know, tell, take
G-is glagol oblika=povednik čas=sedanjik V-ip Verb VForm=indicative Tense=present VBP Verb, non-3rd person singular present do, are/be, have, ‘re/be, ‘m/be, know, ‘ve/have, think, am/be
G-iste glagol oblika=povednik čas=sedanjik oseba=tretja število=ednina V-ip3s Verb VForm=indicative Tense=present Person=third Number=singular VBZ Verb, 3rd person singular present is/be, ‘s/be, has/have, does/do, says/say, ‘s/have, knows/know, seems/seem, comes/come
G-ir glagol oblika=povednik čas=preteklik V-is Verb VForm=indicative Tense=past VBD Verb, past tense was/be, had/have, said/say, were/be, did/do, looked/look, came/come, thought/think, seemed/seem
G-ds glagol oblika=deležnik čas=sedanjik V-pp Verb VForm=participle Tense=present VBG Verb, gerund or persent participle going/go, looking/look, being/be, trying/try, doing/do, coming/come, taking/take, sitting/sit, saying/say
G-dr glagol oblika=deležnik čas=preteklik V-ps Verb VForm=participle Tense=past VBN Verb, past participle been/be, got/get, seen/see, come, done/do, gone/go, made/make, left/leave, taken/take
Gn glagol vrsta=naklonski Vo Verb Type=modal MD Modal verb could, would, will, can, ‘ll/will, must, should, might, ‘d/will

3.2.5. English Adjective

Specification for English Adjective
P Attribute (en) Value (en) Code (en) Attribute (sl) Value (sl) Code (sl)
0 CATEGORY Adjective A besedna_vrsta pridevnik P
2 Degree positive p stopnja nedoločeno n
comparative c primernik p
superlative s presežnik s
3.2.5.1. Morphosyntactic descriptions
MSD table
MSD (sl) Features (sl) MSD (en) Features (en) TreeTagger Description Examples of use
P-n pridevnik stopnja=nedoločeno A-p Adjective Degree=positive JJ Adjective other, little, good, last, old, long, own, great, first
P-p pridevnik stopnja=primernik A-c Adjective Degree=comparative JJR Adjective comparative more, better/good, worse/bad, further, less, older/old, easier/easy, lower/low, younger/young
P-s pridevnik stopnja=presežnik A-s Adjective Degree=superlative JJS Adjective superlative least, most, best/good, worst/bad, greatest/great, latest/late, nearest/near, oldest/old, highest/high

3.2.6. English Pronoun

Specification for English Pronoun
P Attribute (en) Value (en) Code (en) Attribute (sl) Value (sl) Code (sl)
0 CATEGORY Pronoun P besedna_vrsta zaimek Z
1 Type personal p vrsta osebni o
possessive s svojilni s
2 Wh_pronoun wh w zaimek_wh wh w
3.2.6.1. Morphosyntactic descriptions
MSD table
MSD (sl) Features (sl) MSD (en) Features (en) TreeTagger Description Examples of use
Zo zaimek vrsta=osebni Pp Pronoun Type=personal PP Personal pronoun he, I, it, you, they, she, him, we, them
Zow zaimek vrsta=osebni zaimek_wh=wh Ppw Pronoun Type=personal Wh_pronoun=wh WP Wh-pronoun (what, who, whom) what, who, What, whom, whoever, whomever
Zs zaimek vrsta=svojilni Ps Pronoun Type=possessive PP$ Possessive pronoun his, her, my, their, your, its, our, yours
Zsw zaimek vrsta=svojilni zaimek_wh=wh Psw Pronoun Type=possessive Wh_pronoun=wh WP$ Possessive wh-pronoun whose

3.2.7. English Determiner

Specification for English Determiner
P Attribute (en) Value (en) Code (en) Attribute (sl) Value (sl) Code (sl)
0 CATEGORY Determiner D besedna_vrsta določilnik I
1 Type general g vrsta splošni s
wh w wh w
predeterminer p predčlen p
3.2.7.1. Morphosyntactic descriptions
MSD table
MSD (sl) Features (sl) MSD (en) Features (en) TreeTagger Description Examples of use
Is določilnik vrsta=splošni Dg Determiner Type=general DT Determiner the, a, this, that, an, no, all, some, any
Iw določilnik vrsta=wh Dw Determiner Type=wh WDT Wh-determiner (which, that as a rel. pronoun) that, which, whatever, what, whichever
Ip določilnik vrsta=predčlen Dp Determiner Type=predeterminer PDT Predeterminer all, such, half, All, quite, Quite

3.2.8. English Adverb

Specification for English Adverb
P Attribute (en) Value (en) Code (en) Attribute (sl) Value (sl) Code (sl)
0 CATEGORY Adverb R besedna_vrsta prislov R
1 Type general g vrsta splošni s
existential_there t there_obstoja t
wh w wh w
2 Degree positive p stopnja nedoločeno n
comparative c primernik r
superlative s presežnik s
3.2.8.1. Morphosyntactic descriptions
MSD table
MSD (sl) Features (sl) MSD (en) Features (en) TreeTagger Description Examples of use
Rsn prislov vrsta=splošni stopnja=nedoločeno Rgp Adverb Type=general Degree=positive RB Adverb not, n’t, then, now, so, just, back, as, again
Rsr prislov vrsta=splošni stopnja=primernik Rgc Adverb Type=general Degree=comparative RBR Adverb comparative more, later, better/well, longer, less, earlier, further, closer, sooner
Rss prislov vrsta=splošni stopnja=presežnik Rgs Adverb Type=general Degree=superlative RBS Adverb superlative most, best/well, least, hardest, earliest, highest, Worst
Rt prislov vrsta=there_obstoja Rt Adverb Type=existential_there EX Existential “there” there, There
Rw prislov vrsta=wh Rw Adverb Type=wh WRB Wh-adverb when, where, how, why, How, whenever, wherever, whereby, Whenever

3.2.9. English Adposition

Specification for English Adposition
P Attribute (en) Value (en) Code (en) Attribute (sl) Value (sl) Code (sl)
0 CATEGORY Adposition S besedna_vrsta predlog D
1 Type preposition p vrsta predlog p
possesive_ending s svojilna_končnica s
to o to t
3.2.9.1. Morphosyntactic descriptions
MSD table
MSD (sl) Features (sl) MSD (en) Features (en) TreeTagger Description Examples of use
Dp predlog vrsta=predlog Sp Adposition Type=preposition IN Preposition or Subordinating conjunction of, in, on, with, for, at, that, as, from
Ds predlog vrsta=svojilna_končnica Ss Adposition Type=possesive_ending POS Possesive ending ‘s, ’s/’s
Dt predlog vrsta=to So Adposition Type=to TO “to” to, To, TO

3.2.10. English Conjunction

Specification for English Conjunction
P Attribute (en) Value (en) Code (en) Attribute (sl) Value (sl) Code (sl)
0 CATEGORY Conjunction C besedna_vrsta veznik V
1 Type coordinating c vrsta priredni p
3.2.10.1. Morphosyntactic descriptions
MSD table
MSD (sl) Features (sl) MSD (en) Features (en) TreeTagger Description Examples of use
Vp veznik vrsta=priredni Cc Conjunction Type=coordinating CC Coordinating conjunction and, but, or, both, nor, yet, neither, either, &

3.2.11. English Numeral

Specification for English Numeral
P Attribute (en) Value (en) Code (en) Attribute (sl) Value (sl) Code (sl)
0 CATEGORY Numeral M besedna_vrsta števnik K
2 Type cardinal c vrsta glavni g
3.2.11.1. Morphosyntactic descriptions
MSD table
MSD (sl) Features (sl) MSD (en) Features (en) TreeTagger Description Examples of use
K-g števnik vrsta=glavni M-c Numeral Type=cardinal CD Cardinal number one, two, three, four, One, five, ten, hundred, six

3.2.12. English Particle

Specification for English Particle
P Attribute (en) Value (en) Code (en) Attribute (sl) Value (sl) Code (sl)
0 CATEGORY Particle Q besedna_vrsta členek L
3.2.12.1. Morphosyntactic descriptions
MSD table
MSD (sl) Features (sl) MSD (en) Features (en) TreeTagger Description Examples of use
L členek Q Particle RP Particle out, up, down, off, over, around, on, away, in

3.2.13. English Interjection

Specification for English Interjection
P Attribute (en) Value (en) Code (en) Attribute (sl) Value (sl) Code (sl)
0 CATEGORY Interjection I besedna_vrsta medmet M
3.2.13.1. Morphosyntactic descriptions
MSD table
MSD (sl) Features (sl) MSD (en) Features (en) TreeTagger Description Examples of use
M medmet I Interjection UH Interjection yes, oh, Well, No, Yeah, no, please, ah, well

3.2.14. English Abbreviation

Specification for English Abbreviation
P Attribute (en) Value (en) Code (en) Attribute (sl) Value (sl) Code (sl)
0 CATEGORY Abbreviation Y besedna_vrsta okrajšava O
3.2.14.1. Morphosyntactic descriptions
MSD table
MSD (sl) Features (sl) MSD (en) Features (en) TreeTagger Description Examples of use

3.2.15. English Residual

Specification for English Residual
P Attribute (en) Value (en) Code (en) Attribute (sl) Value (sl) Code (sl)
0 CATEGORY Residual X besedna_vrsta neuvrščeno N
1 Type foreign f vrsta tujejezično j
list_item m postavka_seznama z
symbol s simbol s
3.2.15.1. Morphosyntactic descriptions
MSD table
MSD (sl) Features (sl) MSD (en) Features (en) TreeTagger Description Examples of use
Nj neuvrščeno vrsta=tujejezično Xf Residual Type=foreign FW Foreign word de, etc., me, la, le, en, se, masse, di
Nz neuvrščeno vrsta=postavka_seznama Xm Residual Type=list_item LS List item marker 1, b, c, 2, f, 5, d, 3
Ns neuvrščeno vrsta=simbol Xs Residual Type=symbol SYM Symbol

3.2.16. Attribute Index for English

3.2.16.1. Table of attributes
Attribute (en) Category (en) Attribute (sl) Category (sl) Position
Degree Adjective stopnja pridevnik 2
Degree Adverb stopnja prislov 2
Number Noun število samostalnik 3
Number Verb število glagol 5
Person Verb oseba glagol 4
Tense Verb čas glagol 3
Type Adjective vrsta pridevnik 1
Type Adposition vrsta predlog 1
Type Adverb vrsta prislov 1
Type Conjunction vrsta veznik 1
Type Determiner vrsta določilnik 1
Type Noun vrsta samostalnik 1
Type Numeral vrsta števnik 2
Type Pronoun vrsta zaimek 1
Type Residual vrsta neuvrščeno 1
Type Verb vrsta glagol 1
VForm Verb oblika glagol 2
Wh_pronoun Pronoun zaimek_wh zaimek 2

3.2.17. Value Index for English

3.2.17.1. Table of values
Value (en) Code (en) Attribute (en) Category (en) Value (sl) Code (sl) Attribute (sl) Category (sl)
base b VForm Verb osnovna_oblika o oblika glagol
cardinal c Type Numeral glavni g vrsta števnik
common c Type Noun občno_ime o vrsta samostalnik
comparative c Degree Adjective primernik p stopnja pridevnik
comparative c Degree Adverb primernik r stopnja prislov
coordinating c Type Conjunction priredni p vrsta veznik
existential_there t Type Adverb there_obstoja t vrsta prislov
foreign f Type Residual tujejezično j vrsta neuvrščeno
general g Type Adverb splošni s vrsta prislov
general g Type Determiner splošni s vrsta določilnik
indicative i VForm Verb povednik i oblika glagol
list_item m Type Residual postavka_seznama z vrsta neuvrščeno
modal o Type Verb naklonski n vrsta glagol
participle p VForm Verb deležnik d oblika glagol
past s Tense Verb preteklik r čas glagol
personal p Type Pronoun osebni o vrsta zaimek
plural p Number Noun množina m število samostalnik
positive p Degree Adjective nedoločeno n stopnja pridevnik
positive p Degree Adverb nedoločeno n stopnja prislov
possesive_ending s Type Adposition svojilna_končnica s vrsta predlog
possessive s Type Pronoun svojilni s vrsta zaimek
predeterminer p Type Determiner predčlen p vrsta določilnik
preposition p Type Adposition predlog p vrsta predlog
present p Tense Verb sedanjik s čas glagol
proper p Type Noun lastno_ime l vrsta samostalnik
singular s Number Noun ednina e število samostalnik
singular s Number Verb ednina e število glagol
superlative s Degree Adjective presežnik s stopnja pridevnik
superlative s Degree Adverb presežnik s stopnja prislov
symbol s Type Residual simbol s vrsta neuvrščeno
third 3 Person Verb tretja t oseba glagol
to o Type Adposition to t vrsta predlog
wh w Type Adverb wh w vrsta prislov
wh w Type Determiner wh w vrsta določilnik
wh w Wh_pronoun Pronoun wh w zaimek_wh zaimek

3.2.18. MSD Index for English

Table of morphosyntactic descriptions for English
MSD (sl) Features (sl) MSD (en) Features (en) TreeTagger Description Examples of use
So-e samostalnik vrsta=občno_ime število=ednina Nc-s Noun Type=common Number=singular NN Noun common singular time, man, way, head, something, hand, room, door, nothing
So-m samostalnik vrsta=občno_ime število=množina Nc-p Noun Type=common Number=plural NNS Noun common plural eyes/eye, people, things/thing, ‘i, years/year, men/man, feet/foot, hands/hand, words/word
Sl-e samostalnik vrsta=lastno_ime število=ednina Np-s Noun Type=proper Number=singular NP Proper noun singular Harry, Langdon, Ron, Dumbledore, Sophie, Hermione, Samad, Archie, Stefan
Sl-m samostalnik vrsta=lastno_ime število=množina Np-p Noun Type=proper Number=plural NPS Proper noun plural Dursleys/Dursley, Harrys/Harry, Fords, Brothers, States, Jews, Muslims, Catholics, Americans
G-o glagol oblika=osnovna_oblika V-b Verb VForm=base VB Verb, base form be, have, see, do, go, get, know, tell, take
G-is glagol oblika=povednik čas=sedanjik V-ip Verb VForm=indicative Tense=present VBP Verb, non-3rd person singular present do, are/be, have, ‘re/be, ‘m/be, know, ‘ve/have, think, am/be
G-iste glagol oblika=povednik čas=sedanjik oseba=tretja število=ednina V-ip3s Verb VForm=indicative Tense=present Person=third Number=singular VBZ Verb, 3rd person singular present is/be, ‘s/be, has/have, does/do, says/say, ‘s/have, knows/know, seems/seem, comes/come
G-ir glagol oblika=povednik čas=preteklik V-is Verb VForm=indicative Tense=past VBD Verb, past tense was/be, had/have, said/say, were/be, did/do, looked/look, came/come, thought/think, seemed/seem
G-ds glagol oblika=deležnik čas=sedanjik V-pp Verb VForm=participle Tense=present VBG Verb, gerund or persent participle going/go, looking/look, being/be, trying/try, doing/do, coming/come, taking/take, sitting/sit, saying/say
G-dr glagol oblika=deležnik čas=preteklik V-ps Verb VForm=participle Tense=past VBN Verb, past participle been/be, got/get, seen/see, come, done/do, gone/go, made/make, left/leave, taken/take
Gn glagol vrsta=naklonski Vo Verb Type=modal MD Modal verb could, would, will, can, ‘ll/will, must, should, might, ‘d/will
P-n pridevnik stopnja=nedoločeno A-p Adjective Degree=positive JJ Adjective other, little, good, last, old, long, own, great, first
P-p pridevnik stopnja=primernik A-c Adjective Degree=comparative JJR Adjective comparative more, better/good, worse/bad, further, less, older/old, easier/easy, lower/low, younger/young
P-s pridevnik stopnja=presežnik A-s Adjective Degree=superlative JJS Adjective superlative least, most, best/good, worst/bad, greatest/great, latest/late, nearest/near, oldest/old, highest/high
Rsn prislov vrsta=splošni stopnja=nedoločeno Rgp Adverb Type=general Degree=positive RB Adverb not, n’t, then, now, so, just, back, as, again
Rsr prislov vrsta=splošni stopnja=primernik Rgc Adverb Type=general Degree=comparative RBR Adverb comparative more, later, better/well, longer, less, earlier, further, closer, sooner
Rss prislov vrsta=splošni stopnja=presežnik Rgs Adverb Type=general Degree=superlative RBS Adverb superlative most, best/well, least, hardest, earliest, highest, Worst
Rt prislov vrsta=there_obstoja Rt Adverb Type=existential_there EX Existential “there” there, There
Rw prislov vrsta=wh Rw Adverb Type=wh WRB Wh-adverb when, where, how, why, How, whenever, wherever, whereby, Whenever
Zo zaimek vrsta=osebni Pp Pronoun Type=personal PP Personal pronoun he, I, it, you, they, she, him, we, them
Zow zaimek vrsta=osebni zaimek_wh=wh Ppw Pronoun Type=personal Wh_pronoun=wh WP Wh-pronoun (what, who, whom) what, who, What, whom, whoever, whomever
Zs zaimek vrsta=svojilni Ps Pronoun Type=possessive PP$ Possessive pronoun his, her, my, their, your, its, our, yours
Zsw zaimek vrsta=svojilni zaimek_wh=wh Psw Pronoun Type=possessive Wh_pronoun=wh WP$ Possessive wh-pronoun whose
K-g števnik vrsta=glavni M-c Numeral Type=cardinal CD Cardinal number one, two, three, four, One, five, ten, hundred, six
Dp predlog vrsta=predlog Sp Adposition Type=preposition IN Preposition or Subordinating conjunction of, in, on, with, for, at, that, as, from
Ds predlog vrsta=svojilna_končnica Ss Adposition Type=possesive_ending POS Possesive ending ‘s, ’s/’s
Dt predlog vrsta=to So Adposition Type=to TO “to” to, To, TO
Is določilnik vrsta=splošni Dg Determiner Type=general DT Determiner the, a, this, that, an, no, all, some, any
Iw določilnik vrsta=wh Dw Determiner Type=wh WDT Wh-determiner (which, that as a rel. pronoun) that, which, whatever, what, whichever
Ip določilnik vrsta=predčlen Dp Determiner Type=predeterminer PDT Predeterminer all, such, half, All, quite, Quite
Vp veznik vrsta=priredni Cc Conjunction Type=coordinating CC Coordinating conjunction and, but, or, both, nor, yet, neither, either, &
L členek Q Particle RP Particle out, up, down, off, over, around, on, away, in
M medmet I Interjection UH Interjection yes, oh, Well, No, Yeah, no, please, ah, well
Nj neuvrščeno vrsta=tujejezično Xf Residual Type=foreign FW Foreign word de, etc., me, la, le, en, se, masse, di
Nz neuvrščeno vrsta=postavka_seznama Xm Residual Type=list_item LS List item marker 1, b, c, 2, f, 5, d, 3
Ns neuvrščeno vrsta=simbol Xs Residual Type=symbol SYM Symbol
Source: http://nl.ijs.si/spook/msd/html-en/msd-en.html

English corpora

Sketch Engine offers dozens of English corpora.

or