• lc [ attribute ]

    (also referred to as word_lc, word lowercase or word form lowercase) is one of the positional attributes of each token in the corpus. The lc attribute is a lowercased version of the word attribute: John becomes john, Apple becomes apple, BE becomes be. The lc attribute makes the upper case and lowercase version of each token identical. Searching the lc attribute is used for case insensitive searching. see also word form lemma (lowercase)
  • lemma [ attribute ]

    Lemma is the basic form of a word, typically the form found in dictionaries. A lemmatized corpus allows for searching for the basic form and include all forms of the word in the result, e.g. searching for lemma go will find go, goes, went, going, gone. Lemma in Sketch Engine is case sensitive so City and city are two different lemmas (City = the City of London; city = a common noun). The lemma of the first word of a sentence is always lowercase. Therefore, the search for lemma city will also find City but only in if City appears at the beginning of a sentence. A wordlist of lemmas is a frequency list where all of go, went, gone, goes, going are counted together and listed as go. A lemma search of go will find all of go, went, gone, goes, going. Capitalized word forms will only be included if found at the beginning of the sentence. The concept of the lemma is not always clearly defined and may differ between languages (or even between two corpora in the same language). For example, in Sketch Engine, many, more, most are three different lemmas in English. On the other hand, in Czech, the same adjective which is also irregular mnoho, více, nejvíce share the same lemma hodně. The situation is even more complex with agglutinating languages such as Turkish, Hungarian or Japanese where it may not be easy to decide how many affixes should be removed to produce a lemma. The term stem often replaces the term lemma but stem often refers to the very core part of the word while several lemmas may share the same stem. In Sketch Engine, all corpora in the same language are processed using the same tools and therefore have the same lemmatization. Rare exceptions exist if the corpus was acquired from external sources including the original lemmatization. See also lemma-lc or compare with word form.
  • lemma_lc [ attribute ]

    lemma-lc is a case insensitive lemma. All upper-case characters are converted to lowercase. apple and Apple is the same thing. see lemma
  • lempos [ attribute ]

    lempos is a combination of lemma and part of speech (pos) consisting of the lemma, hyphen and a one-letter abbreviation of the part of speech, eg. go-vhouse-n. The part of speech abbreviations differ between corpora. Lempos is case sensitive, house-n is different from House-n.  see also lempos_lc
  • lempos_lc [ attribute ]

    lempos_lc is a case insensitive counterpart of lempos. All uppercase letters are converted to lowercase, thus House-n becomes identical with house-n.
  • longtag [ attribute ]

    Longtag is a detailed part-of-speech tag which usually contains more information than tag. Some corpora have tags containing only basic information on parts of speech and also attribute longtags consist of detailed grammatical information such as case, number, gender, etc. The longtangs are available in Estonian corpus etTenTen or Turkis corpus trTenTen.
  • POS tag [ attribute ]

    A POS tag is the same as tag.
  • stem [ attribute ]

    A stem is a part of a word without its affixes (suffixes, prefixes, etc.). Stems do not have to be valid word forms, e.g. stem hav for the word form having, in comparison to lemma have for the word form having. Stems are used instead of lemmas or in addition to lemmas with languages whose morphology requires it. An example are agglutinating languages such as Turkish, Hungarian or Japanese.
  • tag [ attribute ]

    (also called part-of-speech tag, POS tag or morphological tag) is a label assigned to each token in an annotated corpus to indicate the part of speech and grammatical category. The tool used to annotate a corpus is called a tagger. A collection of tags used in a corpus is called a tagset. The most frequently used tags in a corpus are listed on the corpus information page with a link to the complete tagset. Our blog post on POS tags explains how they work.
  • word form [ attribute ]

    A word form (often shortened to word in Sketch Engine) refers to one of the word forms that a  lemma can take, e.g. the lemma go can take these word forms go, went, gone, goes, going. A list of words is a list where each of go, went, gone, goes, going is listed separately and their frequencies are also calculated separately. A search using words is a search which will only find exactly what was typed. The other word forms will not be included. Word is case sensitiveapple and Apple are two different word forms. compare word_lc (lowercase) lemma lemma lc (lowercase)