ACL Anthology Reference Corpus

The ACL Anthology Reference Corpus (ARC) is an English corpus made up of conference and journal papers in natural language processing and computational linguistics. The corpus has been prepared from 18,288 papers of the ACL Anthology published in 1979–2015.

The abbreviation ACL stands for The Association for Computational Linguistics, an international scientific and professional society for people working in computational linguistics or natural language processing (NLP).

Part-of-speech tagset

The corpus was tagged with the TreeTagger tool using the Penn TreeBank tagset with Sketch Engine modifications.


The corpus is accessible to all users including users without registration at

ACL Anthology Reference Corpus in detail

Basic information

Tokens 74,875,938
Words 62,196,334
Sentences 2,380,457
Documents (academic papers) 18,288

Tools work with the ACL Anthology Reference Corpus

A complete set of Sketch Engine tools is available to work with this English corpus to generate:

  • word sketch – English collocations categorized by grammatical relations
  • thesaurus – synonyms and similar words for every word
  • keywords – terminology extraction of one-word and multi-word units
  • word lists – lists of English nouns, verbs, adjectives etc. organized by frequency
  • n-grams – frequency list of multi-word units
  • concordance – examples in context
  • text type analysis – statistics of metadata in the corpus
  • trends – diachronic analysis automatically identifies neologisms and changes in use

version 2 (autumn 2017)

  • corpus was extended to 62 million words

version 1.1 (spring 2017)

  • computed trends for diachronic analysis

initial version (2013)

  • initial version – 38 million words

Bird, S., Dale, R., Dorr, B. J., Gibson, B. R., Joseph, M. T., Kan, M. Y., … & Tan, Y. F. (2008, May). The ACL Anthology Reference Corpus: A Reference Dataset for Bibliographic Research in Computational Linguistics. In LREC. (preprint version)

Search the ACL Anthology Reference Corpus (ARC)

Sketch Engine offers a range of tools to work with this English corpus of academic papers.


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